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Inverted Figure of Eight - Flying......
Time: 2008-9-20 0:34:52 

IRCHA 直升机动作难度7个等级中英对照
发布: 2007-8-02 17:09 | 作者: IRCHA | 来源: 本站整理 | 查看: 612次


国际遥控模型直升机协会(IRCHA)


直升机动作难度7个等级中英对照

 

 


 

第一级(Level I)

第二级(Level II)

第三级(Level III)

第四级(Level IV)

第五级(Level V)

第六级(Level VI)

第七级(Level VII)

 

 

第一级 (Level I)

Take-off(起飞)

Stationary Hover(静止停悬)

Hover Laterally(水平移动)

Multiple-level Hover(多重高度停悬)

3/4 Rear View Hovering(45°角停悬)

Full Lateral View Hovering(侧面停悬)

Diagonal Hovering(对角停悬)


Circle Hovering

第二级(Level II)

Taxi Out(水平滑行)

Climb-Out(垂直爬升)

90 Degree Turns(90°转向)

Flying Box(矩形飞行)

180 Degree Turns(180°回转)

Straight and Level Flight(水平直线飞行)

Figure of Eight - Constant Heading, Hovering(机头定向8字飞行)

Figure of Eight - "Lazy 8"(水平快8字飞行)

Figure of Eight - Flying(水平8字飞行)

Traffic Pattern Approach to Landing(小角度降落航道)

Translational Descent(大角度降落航道)

Landing(著陆)

Stall Turn(180°失速倒转)

Inside Loop(内浸斗)

Pirouette(原地旋转)

第三级(Level III)

Nose-in - Hover(对面停悬)

Nose-in - Circle(机头向内水平圆)

Nose-in - Take-off(对面起飞)

Nose-in - Landing(对面降落)

540 Stall Turn(540°失速倒转)

Horizontal Roll(水平侧滚)

Immelmann Turn(英麦曼回转)

1/2 Cuban Eight(1/2古巴8字)

Loop w/Pirouette at the Top(内浸斗/顶点旋转360°)

Flying Circle(水平圆)

Figure of Eight - Nose-in, Tail-in(机头向内、向外水平8字)

Autorotation Landing(熄火降落)

第四级(Level IV)

Sustained Inverted Flight(倒飞水平圆)

Sustained Inverted Hover(倒飞停悬)

Inverted Pirouettes(倒飞原地旋转)

Inverted Figure of Eight - Flying(倒飞水平8字飞行)

Consecutive Stationary Rolls(连续侧滚)

Auto 180 Degree Autorotation(180°熄火降落)

Flips Forward(前滚翻)

Flips Backward(後滚翻)

Flips Laterally(侧滚翻)

Rolling Circle(侧滚水平圆)

Tumbles(各种滚翻)

第五级(Level V

Sustained Backward Flight(後退水平圆)

Sustained Backward Figure of Eight - Flying(後退8字飞行)

Sustained Backward Flight - Inside Loops(後退内浸斗)

Sustained Backward Flight - Rolls(後退侧滚)

Sustained Backward Inverted Flight(倒飞後退水平圆)

Sustained Backward Inverted Figure of Eight -Flying(倒飞後退8字飞行) 

Autorotation with inverted segment(倒飞熄火降落)

Knife Edge Pirouette(侧飞自旋360°)

Death Spiral(侧飞水平螺旋下坠)

第六级(Level VI)

Sideways Flight(横向飞行水平圆)

Sideways Figure of Eight - Flying(横向8字飞行)

Sideways Inside Loops(横向内浸斗)

Sideways Outside Loops(横向外浸斗)

Sideways Rolls(横向滚翻)

Sideways Rolls - Helicopter is Rolling(横向滚翻 - 机体侧滚)

Sideways Rolls - Helicopter is Tumbling(横向滚翻 - 机体前後滚翻)

Pirouetting Figure of Eight(机体自旋8字飞行)

Inverted Pirouetting Figure of Eight(机体倒飞自旋8字飞行)

第七级(Level VII)

Pirouetting Inside Loop(机体自旋内觔斗)

Pirouetting Roll(机体自旋侧滚)

Stationary Pirouetting Tumbles(机体自旋原地滚翻)

Traveling Pirouetting Tumbles(机体自旋前进滚翻)

Pirouetting Outside Loop(机体自旋外觔斗)

Pirouetting Autorotation(机体自旋熄火降落)

Pirouetting Auger(机体自旋螺旋钻)

Straight Upright Flight(正立直线飞行)


 

第一级 (Level I)

 

Level I is the most basic of the program and is characterized by the pilot becoming SAFE and Proficient in the Hover and its related phases. Pilot position for most of the maneuvers shall be from the position of Tail-in towards the pilot.
第一级属於最基础的课程,主要是维护操控者的安全,熟悉停悬及相关动作的技巧。执行大多数的动作时,直升机的尾部需朝向操控者。


 

Take-off(起飞)


The take-off should be performed straight up from the landing area, at a constant rate of climb, with little lateral deviations. Come to a complete stop without any vertical bounceor dip, and little to no lateral wobble or drifting. The landing area is defined as a 1 meter diameter circle.
由降落区内将直升机垂直起飞,保持稳定的上升速度,上升的过程中允许轻微的横向偏移。直升机停止上升後,机体需保持完全静止不动,不可有任何的垂直上升或下降,机体不可左右摇晃或漂移。降落区为直径1公尺的圆圈。

 

Stationary Hover(静止停悬)


1. After the take-off, coming to a complete stop with little to no vertical bounce, dip, lateral drifting or wobble.
起飞後机体保持完全静止不动,不可有任意的垂直上升或下降,机体不可左右摇晃或漂移。


2. Hold in the Stationary Hover for one (1) minute.
保持静止停悬1分钟。


3. The Stationary Hover should give the appearance of being under total control.
静止停悬时需表现出可完全掌控的模样。


 

Hover Laterally(水平移动)


1. From take-off area hover forward ten (10) feet, hold for ten (10) seconds.
先将直升机在起飞区的上空保持停悬,然後水平前进10尺,保持静止停悬10秒钟。


2. From there hover backward twenty (20) feet, hold for ten (10) seconds.
然後水平後退20尺,保持静止停悬10秒钟。


3. From there hove forward ten (10) feet until you are over the landing area, then hoverto the left ten (10) feet, hold for ten (10) seconds.
水平前进10尺,直到直升机到达降落区的上空,向左水平移动10尺,保持静止停悬10秒钟。

4. From there hover to the right twenty (20) feet, hold for ten (10) seconds.
然後向右水平移动20尺,保持静止停悬10秒钟。


5. From there hove back to the left ten (10) feet until you are over the landing area.
向左水平移动10尺,回到降落区的上空。


6. Land with the skids completely within the landing area.
降落时脚架需完全落在降落区内。


 

Multiple-level Hover(多重高度停悬)


1. Take-off, hover for five (5) seconds.
起飞後保持静止停悬5秒钟。


2. Climb straight up two (2) meters, hold for five (5) seconds.
垂直上升2公尺,保持静止停悬5秒钟。


3. Descend vertically two (2) meters, hold for five (5) seconds.
垂直下降2公尺,保持静止停悬5秒钟。


4. Land with the skids completely within the landing area.
降落时脚架需完全落在降落区内。


 

3/4 Rear View Hovering(45°角停悬)


1. Take-off to Hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
起飞後保持静止停悬5秒钟。


2. Rotate nose of helicopter either left or right forty-five (45) degrees, hold for five (5)seconds.
向左或向右将机头旋转45°,保持静止停悬5秒钟。


3. Rotate the nose of the helicopter back to straight ahead, hold for five (5) seconds.
将机头旋转45°回到原来的方向,保持静止停悬5秒钟。


4. Continue rotating the nose of the helicopter forty-five (45) degrees to the other side, hold for five (5) seconds.
将机头朝另外一边旋转45°,保持静止停悬5秒钟。


5. Rotate the nose back to straight ahead, hold for five (5) seconds.
将机头旋转45°回到原来的方向,保持静止停悬5秒钟。


6. Land with the skids completely within the landing area.
降落时脚架需完全落在降落区内。

 

Full Lateral View Hovering(侧面停悬)


Same as 3/4 View Hovering, but in steps 2 and 4 rotate ninety (90) degrees instead of forty-five (45) degrees.
如同45°角停悬一般,但在步骤2及4时,将机头旋转90°。


 

Diagonal Hovering(对角停悬)


1. After take-off from the landing area within center of a 10 meter/yard box, from Stationary Hover, maintaining a constant heading, move the helicopter diagonally to a corner of the box, hold for five (5) seconds, then return to the center of the box.
由边长为 10 公尺的正方形中心点的降落区起飞後,保持机头朝固定的方向,由静止停悬开始,将直升机飞往正方形的一个角落,保持静止停悬5秒钟,然後再飞回正方形的中心点。

2. Repeat with the remaining 3 corners of the box.
对正方形的其馀3个角落,重覆执行步骤1。

3. Land with the skids completely within the landing area.
降落时脚架需完全落在降落区内。


 

Circle Hovering


1. Tail-in Circle(机头向外水平圆)


A. Take-off, hold hover for five (5) seconds.
起飞後保持静止停悬5秒钟。

B. Move the helicopter to the right, keeping the tail pointed at the pilot, in a circle around the pilot.        Until the helicopter is hovering over the take-off point.
保持机尾朝向操控者,以操控者为圆心,以顺时针的方向,执行直径 10 公尺的水平圆。直到直升机到达起飞点的上空。


C. Move the helicopter to the left, repeating step b above.
以逆时针的方向重覆执行步骤b。


D. Land with the skids completely within the landing area.
降落时脚架需完全落在降落区内。

2. Constant Heading Circle(机头定向水平圆)A. Take-off, hold hover for five (5) seconds.
起飞後保持静止停悬5秒钟。


B. Move the helicopter to the right, keeping the tail pointed in the same direction, in a ten(10) meter circle in front of the pilot. Until the helicopter is hovering over the take-off point.
保持机头朝固定的方向,在操控者的前面以顺时针的方向,执行直径10公尺的水平圆。直到直升机到达起飞点的上空。


C. Move the helicopter to the left, repeating step b above.
以逆时针的方向重覆执行步骤B。


D. Land with the skids completely within the landing area.
降落时脚架需完全落在降落区内。

 

第二级(Level II)


Level II is an intermediate level of proficiency and completion of this level takes the pilot to the level of a well rounded pilot capable of performing Basic Flight skills. Intrinsic to this level is successfully completing all components of Level I, then advancing to the ability to FLY the helicopter in circuits.第二级属於中等程度,使操控者有能力执行基础飞行的技巧。第二级的本质是要能成功地完成第一级的所有动作,以及增进圆周飞行的能力。

 

Taxi Out(水平滑行)


1. Take-off from the landing area to eye-level, hold momentarily.
由降落区将直升机垂直起飞至与眼睛同高,静止停悬几秒钟。


2. Hover forward slowly for no less than ten (10) meters.
缓慢地往前滑行至少10公尺的距离。


3. Turn into the prevailing wind direction and continue straight and level for no less than ten (10) meters.
将机头转至迎风面,并且继续水平直线前进至少10公尺的距离。


4. Either proceed to Climb-Out or Land within the landing area circle.
接下来可以直接进行"垂直爬升"的程序或降落程序,降落时机体必须在圆形的降落区内。

 

Climb-Out(垂直爬升)


1. After Taxi Out, begin ascent by gradually increasing power/collective.
执行完"水平滑行"後,逐渐地增加油门/螺距,使机体开始上升。


2. Continue to climb until an altitude of approximately fifty (50) feet.
持续地爬升,直到大约50尺的高度。


3. Climb-out should be parallel to flight path and at a moderate speed.
垂直爬升的过程中,机体必须与航道平行,并且保持适当的上升速度。

 

90 Degree Turns(90°转向)


After Climb-Out, turn 90 degrees in a direction away from pilot and spectators.
执行完"垂直爬升"後,将机头旋转90°,使机尾朝向操控者及观众。

 

Flying Box(矩形飞行)


1. After completing the Climb-Out and first 90 Degree Turn, continue to fly straight and level.
执行完"垂直爬升"及第一个"90°转向"後,保持水平直线前进。


2. Execute another 90 Degree Turn, same direction as before.
执行第二个"90°转向",旋转的方向必须与第一个相同。


3. Continue as before until a box or rectangle has been formed.
继续执行步骤2的程序,直到飞行的轨迹能形成一个正方形或长方形。

 

180 Degree Turns(180°回转)


1. While flying straight and level, execute a turn, hold this turn until the helicopter has come around back to the same direction it has just come from, straighten out and continue in straight and level flight.
先保持水平直线飞行,然後执行转弯的动作,回转180°後对正航道,继续保持水平直线飞行。


2. Turns should be made turning away from the pilot to the right and left.
分别由左至右,以及由右至左,执行外侧回转(远离操控者)。


3. Turns should be made turning toward the pilot to the right and left.
分别由左至右,以及由右至左,执行内侧回转(接近操控者)。

 

Straight and Level Flight(水平直线飞行)


1. From the left to the right.
由左至右,执行水平直线飞行。

2. From the right to the left.
由右至左,执行水平直线飞行。

 

Figure of Eight - Constant Heading, Hovering(机头定向8字飞行)


1. Take-off to eye-level, hold momentarily.
将直升机垂直起飞至与眼睛同高,静止停悬几秒钟。

2. While maintaining constant altitude, speed and heading, begin a forward hovering circle to either the right or the left.
将直升机保持在同高度、同速度以及机头朝固定的方向,向右或向左开始执行水平圆的动作。

3. As the helicopter reaches the take-off point, continue hovering forward and complete a circle in the opposite direction from before.
当直升机到达起飞点的上空後,以步骤2的方式,继续向另一侧执行水平圆的动作。

4. Stop over take-off point, descend vertically and land completely within the landing circle.
在起飞点的上空停止,然後垂直下降,降落时机体必须完全在圆形的降落区内。

 

Figure of Eight - "Lazy 8"(水平快8字飞行)

1. With the helicopter flying straight and level after it passes the pilot, make a turn that is greater than 180 degrees, away from the pilot.
先保持水平直线飞行,当直升机通过操控者後,向外侧(远离操控者)执行大於180°的转弯。


2. After the helicopter passes in front of the pilot, execute another turn that is greater than180 degrees, away from the pilot.
当直升机通过操控者後,再向外侧(远离操控者)执行另一次大於180°的转弯。

3. This maneuver must be done starting from both left to right (first turn to the left, counterclockwise) and right to left (first turn to the right, clockwise).
分别由左至右(先向左转弯,逆时针),以及由右至左(先向右转弯,顺时针)执

行。

 

Figure of Eight - Flying(水平8字飞行)


1. With the helicopter flying straight and level after it passes the pilot, make a 270 degree turn away from the pilot, the helicopter will now be pointed directly at the

 


Inverted Figure of Eight - Flying(倒飞水平8字飞行)


1. With the helicopter is flying straight and level inverted after it passes the pilot, make a 270 degree turn away from the pilot, the helicopter will now be pointed directly at the pilot.
先保持倒飞水平直线飞行,当直升机通过操控者後,开始执行外侧 3/4 水平圆(远 离操控者),使机头朝向操控者。

2. After the helicopter is pointing at the pilot, execute a 360 degree turn, in the opposite direction. The helicopter will again be pointing directly at the pilot.
当机头朝向操控者後,向另一侧执行 360°水平圆,使机头再次朝向操控者。


3. After the helicopter is pointing at the pilot again, execute a 90 degree turn, in the same direction as the first 270 degree turn.
当机头再次朝向操控者後,执行 1/4 水平圆,使机头与步骤1的水平直线飞行同向。

4. This maneuver must be done starting from both left to right (first 270 degree turn to the left, counterclockwise) and right to left (first 270 degree turn to the right, clockwise).
分别由左至右(向左执行 3/4 水平圆,逆时针),以及由右至左(向右执行 3/4 水平圆,顺时针),执行水平8字飞行。

 

Consecutive Stationary Rolls(连续侧滚)


1. With the helicopter hovering Tail-In, add right cyclic and flip the helicopter to inverted, continue until the helicopter has completed 2 rolls to the right.
机尾朝向操控者保持停悬,将副翼打右舵使直升机翻滚为倒飞的姿态,持续地将副 翼打右舵使直升机向右完成侧滚二圈。

2. With the helicopter hovering Tail-In, add left cyclic and flip the helicopter to inverted, continue until the helicopter has completed 2 rolls to the left.
机尾朝向操控者保持停悬,将副翼打左舵使直升机翻滚为倒飞的姿态,持续地将副 翼打左舵使直升机向左完成侧滚二圈。

3.  With  the  helicopter  hovering  Nose-In,  add  right  cyclic  and  flip  the  helicopter  to inverted, continue until the helicopter has completed 2 rolls to the right.
机头朝向操控者保持停悬,将副翼打右舵使直升机翻滚为倒飞的姿态,持续地将副 翼打右舵使直升机向右完成侧滚二圈。


4. With the helicopter hovering Nose-In, add left cyclic and flip the helicopter to inverted,continue until the helicopter has completed 2 rolls to the left.
机头朝向操控者保持停悬,将副翼打左舵使直升机翻滚为倒飞的姿态,持续地将副 翼打左舵使直升机向左完成侧滚二圈。

 

Auto 180 Degree Autorotation(180°熄火降落)


1. Starting from an altitude of no less than twenty (20) meters and on a heading parallel to the flight line, start your Autorotation.
机头保持与航道平行,且高度不得低於 20 公尺,开始执行熄火降落。


2. Try for a smooth constant rate of descent directly to a one (1) meter landing circle.
保持平滑且稳定的下降速度,朝直径1公尺的圆形降落区降落。


3. The helicopter must complete a 180 degree turn after the Autorotation has started.
熄火降落的程序开始执行後,直升机必须完成 180°转弯的动作。


4. All of the helicopter landing skids must be within the landing circle.
降落时脚架需完全落在圆形的降落区内。

5. This maneuver must be done starting from the right and from the left of the pilot, and the  180  degree  turn  must  be  done  both  clockwise  and  counterclockwise  from  each direction.        The pilot may stand anywhere they wish during this maneuver.
分别由操控者的右侧及左侧开始执行,并且 180°转弯的动作必须以顺时针及逆时 针的方向各执行一次,操控者可以站在任意      地方执行熄火降落。

 

Flips Forward(前滚翻)


1. With the helicopter hovering Tail-In, add forward cyclic and flip the helicopter to an inverted Nose-In hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
机尾朝向操控者保持停悬,将升降舵打降舵使直升机翻滚为机头朝向操控者的倒飞 姿态,保持静止倒飞停悬5秒钟。

2. From this inverted Nose-In hover, add forward cyclic and flip the helicopter back to an upright Tail-In hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
由机头朝向操控者的倒飞停悬,将升降舵打降舵使直升机翻滚为机尾朝向操控者的

正立停悬姿态,保持静止停悬5秒钟。

3. With the helicopter hovering Nose-In, add forward cyclic and flip the helicopter to an inverted Tail-In hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
机头朝向操控者保持停悬,将升降舵打降舵使直升机翻滚为机尾朝向操控者的倒飞 姿态,保持静止倒飞停悬5秒钟。

4. From this inverted Tail-In hover, add forward cyclic and flip the helicopter back to an upright Nose-In hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
由机尾朝向操控者的倒飞停悬,将升降舵打降舵使直升机翻滚为机头朝向操控者的 正立停悬姿态,保持静止停悬5秒钟。

 

Flips Backward(後滚翻)


1. With the helicopter hovering Tail-In, add backward cyclic and flip the helicopter to an inverted Nose-In hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
机尾朝向操控者保持停悬,将升降舵拉升舵使直升机翻滚为机头朝向操控者的倒飞 姿态,保持静止倒飞停悬5秒钟。

2. From this inverted Nose-In hover, add backward cyclic and flip the helicopter back to an upright Tail-In hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
由机头朝向操控者的倒飞停悬,将升降舵拉升舵使直升机翻滚为机尾朝向操控者的 正立停悬姿态,保持静止停悬5秒钟。

3. With the helicopter hovering Nose-In, add backward cyclic and flip the helicopter to an inverted Tail-In hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
机头朝向操控者保持停悬,将升降舵拉升舵使直升机翻滚为机尾朝向操控者的倒飞 姿态,保持静止倒飞停悬5秒钟。

4. From this inverted Tail-In hover, add backward cyclic and flip the helicopter back to an upright Nose-In hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
由机尾朝向操控者的倒飞停悬,将升降舵拉升舵使直升机翻滚为机头朝向操控者的 正立停悬姿态,保持静止停悬5秒钟。


Flips Laterally(侧滚翻)


1. With the helicopter hovering Nose-Left, add right cyclic and flip the helicopter to an inverted Nose-Left hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
机头朝左保持停悬,将副翼打右舵使直升机翻滚为机头朝左的倒飞停悬姿态,保持 静止倒飞停悬5秒钟。

2. From this inverted Nose-Left hover, add right cyclic and flip the helicopter back to an upright Nose-Left hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
由机头朝左的倒飞停悬,将副翼打右舵使直升机翻滚为机头朝左的正立停悬姿态, 保持静止停悬5秒钟。


3. Repeat but use left cyclic instead of right cyclic.
重覆以上的动作,但是将副翼打左舵。

4. With the helicopter hovering Nose-Right, add right cyclic and flip the helicopter to an inverted Nose-Right hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
机头朝右保持停悬,将副翼打右舵使直升机翻滚为机头朝右的倒飞停悬姿态,保持 静止倒飞停悬5秒钟。


5. From this inverted Nose-Right hover, add right cyclic and flip the helicopter back to an upright Nose-Right hover, hold for five (5) seconds.
由机头朝右的倒飞停悬,将副翼打右舵使直升机翻滚为机头朝右的正立停悬姿态,保持静止停悬5秒钟。


6. Repeat but use left cyclic instead of right cyclic.
重覆以上的动作,但是将副翼打左舵。

 

Rolling Circle(侧滚水平圆)


1. Fly a clockwise circle while rolling the helicopter to the right.
以直升机向右侧滚的方式,执行顺时针方向的水平圆。


2. Repeat flying a clockwise circle, but this time rolling the helicopter to the left.
以直升机向左侧滚的方式,执行顺时针方向的水平圆。

 


3. Fly a counterclockwise circle while rolling the helicopter to the right.
以直升机向右侧滚的方式,执行逆时针方向的水平圆。


4. Repeat flying a counterclockwise circle, but this time rolling the helicopter to the left.
以直升机向左侧滚的方式,执行逆时针方向的水平圆。

 

Tumbles(各种滚翻)


1.  With  the  helicopter  hovering  Tail-In  pull  back  cyclic,  and  work  the  collective  to complete  at  least  two  (2)  full  back  tumbles  while  maintaining  a  constant  altitude  and heading. Stop the helicopter in a stable Tail-In hover.
机尾朝向操控者保持停悬,将升降舵拉升舵使直升机保持固定的高度及方向,向後 翻滚至少二圈。动作执行完毕後,机尾朝向操控者保持稳定的停悬。


2. Repeat push forward cyclic completing a minimum of two (2) forward tumbles.
将升降舵打降舵,重覆步骤1,向前翻滚至少二圈。

3.  With  the  helicopter  hovering  Nose-In  pull  back  cyclic,  and  work  the  collective  to complete  at  least  two  (2)  full  back  tumbles  while  maintaining  a  constant  altitude  and heading. Stop the helicopter in a stable Nose-In hover.
机头朝向操控者保持停悬,将升降舵拉升舵使直升机保持固定的高度及方向,向後 翻滚至少二圈。动作执行完毕後,机头朝向操控者保持稳定的停悬。


4. Repeat push forward cyclic completing a minimum of two (2) forward tumbles.
将升降舵打降舵,重覆步骤3,向前翻滚至少二圈。


5. Fly straight and level form left to right as the helicopter is just about in front of the pilot, pull back cyclic, adjust the collective to maintain constant altitude and speed and hold the back cyclic as the helicopter completes one (1) full traveling tumbling back flip to upright. Fly away straight and level.
由左至右保持水平直线飞行,当直升机在操控者的正前方时,将升降舵拉升舵,控 制主旋翼的螺距使直升机保持固定的高度及前进速度,向後翻滚一圈完毕。继续保 持水平直线飞行。


6. Repeat but start flying from right to left.
由右至左,重覆步骤5。


7. Fly straight and level from left to right at a moderate speed as the helicopter is just about in front of the pilot, add extra collective momentarily, then simultaneously push forward cyclic, and adjust the collective to maintain constant altitude and speed and hold the forward cyclic until the helicopter completes one (1) full traveling tumbling front flip to upright. Fly away straight and level.
由左至右保持适当速度的水平直线飞行,当直升机在操控者的正前方时,瞬间加大 主旋翼的螺距,同时将升降舵打降舵,控制主旋翼的螺距使直升机保持固定的高度 及前进速度,直到直升机向前翻滚一圈完毕。继续保持水平直线飞行。

8. Repeat but start flying form right to left.
由右至左,重覆步骤7。

第五级(Level V)


 

Level V is an advanced level of proficiency and completion of this level takes the pilot to the level of a pilot capable of performing beyond the basics of Backward Flight. Intrinsic to  this  level  is  successfully  completing  all  components  of  the  previous  levels,  then advancing  to  the  ability  to  control  the  helicopter  in  these  new  orientations.  Please  use extreme caution when performing these advanced maneuvers, the pilots and spectators safety is of utmost importance.
第五级属於高级程度,使操控者有能力执行基础的後退飞行。第五级的本质是要能成功地完成前四级的所有动作,以及增进对於新动作的操控及定位能力。在执行这 些高级的动作时,必须尽可能地注意操控者及观众的安全。

 


Sustained Backward Flight(後退水平圆)

 

1.  With the helicopter upright fly backward  for  at  least  one  (1)  clockwise  and one  (1) counterclockwise circuits around your flying area.
在飞行区域内,以顺时针及逆时针的方向,至少各执行一圈後退水平圆。

 


Sustained Backward Figure of Eight - Flying(後退8字飞行)


1.  With  the  helicopter  hovering  pointing  to  the  left  over  the  landing  area,  move  the helicopter backwards to the right, then perform a 270 degree turn. The helicopter should be flying backwards directly at the pilot.
在降落区的上空将机头朝左保持停悬,向右後退飞行,然後执行外侧 3/4 水平圆, 此时机尾朝向操控者後退飞行。

2.  While  maintaining  constant  altitude  and  speed,  execute  a  360  degree  turn  in  the opposit direction, the helicopter should flying directly at the pilot again.
保持固定的高度及速度,向另一侧执行 360°水平圆,此时机尾又朝向操控者後退飞行。

3. Perform a 90 degree turn in the same direction as the first 270 degree turn, fly away straight and level and then fly backwards to the starting point above the landing area.
执行後退 1/4 水平圆,使机头与步骤1的停悬同向,保持後退水平直线飞行至降落区上空的起始点。

4.  With  the  helicopter  hovering  Nose-In  over  the  landing  area,  move  the  helicopter backwards  away  from  the  pilot  perform  a  360  degree  turn.  The  helicopter  should  be flying backwards directly away from the pilot.
在降落区的上空将机头朝向操控者保持停悬,以後退飞行的方式执行 360°水平圆, 此时机头朝向操控者并保持後退飞行(远离操控者)。

5.  While  maintaining  constant  altitude  and  speed,  execute  another  360  degree  turn  in opposite direction, the helicopter should be flying directly away from the pilot again.
保持固定的高度及速度,向另一侧执行 360°水平圆,此时机头又朝向操控者并保 持後退飞行(远离操控者)。


6. To complete this manuuver, fly backward to a hover above the landing area.
後退飞行至降落区的上空保持停悬,即完成此动作。

 

Sustained Backward Flight - Inside Loops(後退内浸斗)

 

1. With the helicopter upright and flying backward straight and level from the left to the right, when the helicopter is directly in front of the pilot, push forward cyclic and execute a Tail first Inside Loop. Use the collective to make the loop as round as possible.
由左至右保持後退水平直线飞行,当直升机在操控者的正前方时,将升降舵打降舵 执行内浸斗。控制主旋翼的螺距,尽可能使飞行轨迹成为圆形的环状。

2. Repeat but this time start by flying backward from right to left.
由右至左保持後退水平直线飞行,重覆执行步骤1。

 

Sustained Backward Flight - Rolls(後退侧滚)

 

1. While the helicopter is flying straight and level backward from left to right, before it reaches the pilot, roll the helicopter away from the pilot until completes one (1) roll. The helicopter should be flying inverted and backward as it passes in front of the pilot, the helicopter should continue to roll back to upright after is passes in front of the pilot. Use collective control to maintain constant altitude and speed. Fly away from the maneuver straight and level.
由左至右保持後退水平直线飞行,在直升机未到达操控者的正前方时,将副翼打右降舵执行侧滚(远离操控者)。当直升机到达操控者的正前方时,机体刚好成为倒 飞後退飞行,继续执行侧滚的动作,等到直升机通过操控者的正前方以後,机身便 恢复为正飞後退飞行。执行後退侧滚时,请控制主旋翼的螺距,以便维持固定的高 度及速度。

2. Repeat the above step but this time roll the helicopter toward the pilot.
重覆执行步骤1,将副翼打左舵执行侧滚(接近操控者)。


3. Repeat the above steps but this time flying backwards from the right to the left, and do both a roll to the left and to the right.
重覆执行步骤1及2,由右至右开始执行。

 

Sustained Backward Inverted Flight(倒飞後退水平圆)

 

1. With the helicopter inverted fly backward for at least one (1) clockwise and one (1) counterclockwise circuits around your flying area.
在飞行区域内,以顺时针及逆时针的方向,至少各执行一圈後退水平圆。

 

Sustained Backward Inverted Figure of Eight -Flying(倒飞後退8字飞行)

 


1. With the helicopter hovering inverted pointing to the left over the landing area, move the helicopter backwards to the right, perform a 270 degree turn. The helicopter should be flying backwards directly at the pilot.
在降落区的上空将机头朝左保持倒飞停悬,向右後退飞行,然後执行外侧 3/4 水平 圆,此时机尾朝向操控者後退飞行。

2.  While  maintaining  constant  altitude  and  speed,  execute  a  360  degree  turn  in  the opposit direction, the helicopter should flying directly at the pilot again.
保持固定的高度及速度,向另一侧执行 360°水平圆,此时机尾又朝向操控者後退 飞行。

3.  Perform a  90 degree  turn  in the  same  direction  as the  first 270  degree turn,  fly out straight and level and then fly backwards to the starting point above the landing area.
执行後退 90°转弯,使机头与步骤1的停悬同向,保持後退水平直线飞行至降落区上空的起始点。

4.  With  the  helicopter  hovering  Nose-In  inverted  over  the  landing  area,  move  the helicopter  backwards  away  from  the  pilot  perform  a  360  degree  turn.  The  helicopter should be flying backwards directly away from the pilot.
在降落区的上空将机头朝向操控者保持倒飞停悬,以後退飞行的方式执行 360°水 平圆,此时机头朝向操控者并保持後退飞行(远离操控者)。

5.  While  maintaining  constant  altitude  and  speed,  execute  another  360  degree  turn  in opposite direction, the helicopter should flying directly away the pilot again.
保持固定的高度及速度,向另一侧执行 360°水平圆,此时机头又朝向操控者并保 持後退飞行(远离操控者)。


6. To complete this manuuver fly, backward to a hover above the landing area.
後退飞行至降落区的上空保持倒飞停悬,即完成此动作。

 

Autorotation with inverted segment(倒飞熄火降落)

 

1. Starting from an altitude of no less than twenty (20) meters and on a heading parallel to  the  flight  line,  with  the  helicopter  inverted  and  to  the  pilot  right,  start  your Autorotation.
机头保持与航道平行,且高度不得低於  20  公尺,直升机保持倒飞姿态,向操控者 的右侧开始执行熄火降落。

2. During the Autorotation, roll the helicopter to upright.
在降落的过程中,将直升机侧滚成为正飞的姿态。


3. Try for a smooth constant rate of descent directly to the one (1) meter/yard landing circle.
保持平滑且稳定的下降速度,朝直径1公尺的圆形降落区降落。


4. Any part of the helicopter landing skids must be within the one (1) meter/yard landing circle.
降落时脚架的某一部份需落在圆形的降落区内。


5. Repeat but this time start the Autorotation to the pilot left.
向操控者的左侧重覆执行熄火降落。

 

Knife Edge Pirouette(侧飞自旋 360°)

 

1. With the helicopter flying straight and level form right to left, roll the helicopter to the left (toward the pilot), drop collective to zero degree, and while the helicopter is in knife edge flight at least one (1) full tail rotor turn (360 degrees) to the right (clockwise). Exit by rolling to the right, adding collective and fly away upright and level.
由右至左保持水平直线飞行,将副翼打左舵执行 1/4 侧滚(接近操控者)。降低主旋 翼的螺距成为0°,当直升机成为侧飞的状态时,以顺时针的方向至少执行一次 360°自旋,然後将副翼打右舵,增加主旋翼的螺距,使机体恢复成水平直线飞行。


2. Repeat step 1, but this time make the rail rotor turn to the left (counterclockwise).
重覆执行步骤1,但以逆时针的方向至少执行一次 360°自旋。


3. Repeat steps 1 & 2, but this time roll the helicopter to the right (away from the pilot). Exit by rolling back to the left.
重覆执行步骤1及2,但将副翼打右舵执行 1/4 侧滚(远离操控者)。结束时将副翼打左舵。


4. Repeat steps 1, 2 & 3, but this time with the helicopter flying from left to right.
由左至右保持水平直线飞行,重覆执行步骤1、2及3。

 

Death Spiral(侧飞水平螺旋下坠)

 

1. With the helicopter hovering at a safe altitude, roll the helicopter to the left, until the rotor  blades  are  vertical,  the  helicopter  must  remain  horizontal  during  this  maneuver, drop collective and add forward cyclic.
先将直升机停悬在安全的高度,然後将副翼打左舵执行 1/4 侧滚,直到主旋翼回转 面成为垂直,机体必须保持水平,降低主旋翼的螺距成为0°,并且将升降舵打降 舵。

2.  The  helicopter  must  complete  at  least  three  (3)  complete  "forward"  tumbles  as  it  is falling sideways toward the ground.
当机体朝地面下坠时,至少须完成三次前滚翻的动作。


3. Roll back to the right to exit this maneuver.
将副翼打右舵,使直升机恢复成为水平飞行。


4.  Repeat  the  above  steps,  but  start  the  maneuver  by  rolling  to  the  right,  and  exit  by rolling to the left.
重覆执行步骤1、2及3,但将副翼打右舵执行 1/4 侧滚。结束时将副翼打左舵。

5.  Repeat  the  above  steps,  but  use  aft  cyclic  instead  of  forward  cyclic  completeing  at least three (3) "backward" tumbles.
重覆执行上述步骤,但将升降舵打降舵,至少须完成三次後滚翻的动作。

 

第六级(Level VI)

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